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Universal Joint Classification

Universal joint, or universal joint, is part of the power transfer to realize variable Angle, used to need to change the location of the drive axis direction, it is the universal transmission device of car driving system of the "joint" part. The universal joint and the transmission shaft combination are called universal joint drive. In the front engine rear wheel drive vehicle, the universal joint drive is installed between the transmission output shaft and the drive axle main reducer input shaft; The front-engine front-wheel-drive vehicles omit the transmission shaft, and the universal joint is installed between the front axle and the wheels, which are both responsible for driving and steering.

Structure and function

The structure and function of the universal joint is somewhat like the joint on the human limb, which allows the Angle between the connected parts to change within a certain range. In order to satisfy the dynamic transfer, adaptive steering, and the Angle change caused by the movement of the car, the drive axle of the front drive car is connected with the common universal joint between the axle and the axle. But due to the restrictions on the size of the axial, Angle but also is bigger, a single universal joint can not make the output shaft and the shaft into the shaft of the instantaneous angular velocity are equal, easy to cause vibration, adding parts damaged, and generate a lot of noise, so widely used in a variety of patterned constant speed universal joint. On the front drive car, each half axis USES two equal velocity universal joints, and the universal joint of the drive axle is half axis inside the universal joint, which is close to the axle of the axle and is a semi-axial universal joint. The rear drive vehicle, engine, clutch and transmission as a whole is installed on the frame, and connected to the frame, drive axle by elastic suspension, there is a distance between the need for connection. Beat in the operation of the road is rough cars, poor load changes or two assembly installed, can make the gearbox output shaft and the Angle between the drive axle of main reducer input shaft and the distance change, so in the form of universal joint drive a car powered with double universal joint, is to have a universal joint on both ends of the transmission shaft, its role is to make the shaft ends of equal Angle, so as to ensure the instantaneous angular velocity of the input shaft and output shaft are always equal.


Rigid universal joints

Universal joint has no obvious elastic universal joint in the direction of torsion. It can be divided into different speed universal joint, quasi constant velocity universal joint and constant velocity universal joint.

A universal joint of unequal speed. When the Angle between the two axes of the universal joint is greater than zero, the output axis and the input axis are changed at the instantaneous angular velocity ratio, but the average angular velocity is equal to the universal joint.

The cross - axis rigid universal joint consists of universal joint, cross, needle, oil seal, bearing cover and so on. The working principle is: one of the rotating forks will be driven by a cross shaft to turn the other one, and can swing in any direction at the center of the cross axis. The roller in the roller bearing can rotate in order to reduce friction. The axis of the input power connection is called the input shaft (also known as the driving shaft), and the axis of the output of the universal joint is called the follower axis. There are Angle between input and output shaft under the working conditions of, two shaft angular velocity range, and thus leads to the output shaft and is connected with the driving part of torsional vibration and impact the service life of these parts.

Constant velocity universal joint. The movement of the movement at an equal instantaneous angular velocity at the Angle of design, and the universal joint of the motion of an approximate equivalent instantaneous angular velocity in other angles. It is divided into: a) double - link quasi - constant velocity universal joint. It refers to the length of the transmission shaft in the universal joint iso-speed transmission device to be shortened to the universal joint. B) convex block quasi-constant velocity universal joint. It consists of two universal joints and two convex blocks of different shapes. Two of them are equivalent to the intermediate driving shaft and the two cross pins in the dual universal joint. C) three pin shaft quasi-constant velocity universal joint. It consists of two three-pin shafts, active eccentricity and driven eccentric shafts. D) spherical roller quasi-constant velocity universal joint. It consists of pin shaft, spherical roller, universal joint axis and cylinder. Roller can do axial movement in the tank to act as a telescopic spline. Roller and groove wall contact can transfer torque.

The output axis and the input axis connected to the universal joint are the universal joint of the motion of the instantaneous angular velocity. It is divided into:

A) ball fork type universal joint. A universal joint consisting of raceway forks and steel balls. In this way, the circular grooved ball - way type ball - cross - type universal joint is the universal joint of the ball rolling way of the ball. The structure of the section is characterized by the arc grooves on the forked fork and the moving fork. The two together form the four steel ball rolling paths, which can hold four steel balls. The fixing steel ball is installed in the spherical groove of the center of the center. The straight - groove raceway type ball - cross - type universal - joint is the ball rolling of the ball rolling way. Its structure is characterized by a straight groove on two forks, which are tilted at the center line of the axis and are tilted at the same Angle and are symmetrical with each other. There are four balls in the raceway between two forks.

B) ball cage constant velocity universal joint. According to the motion of the universal joint axis, it can be distinguished between the axial and non-telescopic type (fixed type) ball cage type universal joint and the retractable ball-cage type universal joint. Structure of fixed type ball cage universal star set within the inner surface of the spline connected to the drive shaft, the outer surface of the it system has six arc grooves as inner raceway of steel ball, outer raceway on the inner surface of spherical shell. The star sleeve is fitted with a spherical shell and is fitted with one steel ball in each of the six rolling paths, and the six steel balls are kept in the same plane by the retaining frame (the cage). The power is passed from the transmission shaft through the steel ball and the spherical shell. The structure of the retractable ball-cage type universal joint is characterized by a cylindrical straight slot in the inner wall of the shell and the outside of the star sleeve, and the ball is fitted in the rolling path formed after the two fit together. The steel ball is also mounted in the cage. The star socket is made with a spline to connect with the input shaft. This structure allows a star set to move relative to a simple shell in the direction of the axial direction.

Flexible universal joint

Flexible universal joint: the universal joint has an obvious elastic universal joint in the direction of torsion.

Flexible universal joint is mainly composed of rubber elastic element (rubber plate, rubber, rubber ring, rubber metal sleeve, etc.), bushing, bolts, and in order to guarantee high speed dynamic balance of the set when the centering device, etc. Its working principle is when the effect on the input shaft torque, torque by the three on the input shaft, universal joint fork flange and the connecting bolts, and then spread to the rubber piece, torque through the rubber piece and effect on the output shaft of the universal buddhist flange. Because the rubber is elastic, there is a certain Angle between the two axes.